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Abstract: On the presumption that a healthier life means a longer life, the "Long and Healthy Life" component of the Human Development Index relies solely upon a nationsâ€™ estimated life expectancy as its measure of the healthiness and life length of its populace. However, the well-established health-longevity gender paradox, that compared to Males, Females experience inferior health outcomes but superior longevity, suggests that the life expectancy-based index is insufficient for the task and potentially misleading from a health policy perspective. Here new, fit-for-purpose policy focused Health Indices and Inequality measures are introduced and explored in the light of the paradox in 21st century China. Chinaâ€™s longevity and health experiences are consistent with the paradox and, furthermore, they are trending in different directions. The analysis reveals that much is lost by not including a health component along with longevity in the Human Development Index.
Keywords: Health Inequality, Inequality Measurement, Healthy-Longevity Paradox
JEL Classification: D63; I31; I32