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Abstract: I document the salient features of monetary and fiscal outcomes for the Venezuelan economy during the 1960 to 2016 period. Using the consolidated government-budget accounting framework of Chapter 2, I assess the importance of fiscal balance, seigniorage, and growth in accounting for the evolution of debt ratios. I find that extraordinary transfers, mostly associated with unprofitable public enterprises, and not central-government primary deficits, account for the increase in financing needs in recent decades. Seigniorage has been a consistent source of financing of deficits and transfers, especially in the last decade, with increases in debt ratios being important in some periods.
Keywords: monetary, fiscal, policy, inflation, debt, growth, oil, Venezuela.
JEL Classification: E00, E02, E3; E4, E5, E6, O1, O4.