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Abstract: Productivity is at the core of the large differences in income per capita across countries. What accounts for international productivity differences? I discuss cross-country differences in the allocation of inputs across heterogeneous production units-misallocation-as a potential factor in accounting for aggregate productivity. Policies and institutions generating misallocation are prevalent in poor and developing countries and may also be responsible for differences in the selection of operating producers and technology used, contributing substantially to aggregate productivity differences across countries.
Keywords: productivity, misallocation, selection, technology, regulation, trade, financial frictions, agriculture.
JEL Classification: O11, O14, O4.