Professor John Munro passed away on December 23, 2013. This site is maintained and kept online as an archive. For more infomation please visit the Centre for Medieval Studies
Professor John H. Munro
Department of Economics
University of Toronto
150 St. George Street
Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G7
Updated on 23 August 2013.
- (1) you engage in doing research: in reading both primary and secondary sources; i.e., in reading original documents and then studies -- in journal articles, essays, books, etc. -- that other authors have composed based on these or similar sources. Undergraduate students of course normally do not use primary sources (except in specialized seminars), as do all graduate students, university academics, and other (independent) scholars. Undergraduates normally do not have the time, the resources, the access, and the trainng to use primary or documentary sources -- though some do. So most have to rely on the publications of other scholars, and a wide variety of often conflicting publications (i.e., with different and often opposite views
- (2) you engage in analysis, both historical and economic analyses, using both inductive logic and deductive logic. In particular, after you have assembled all your research notes, you have to deal with the problem of conflicting evidence and conflicting opinions. Which evidence is trustworthy, and whose analyses and opinions are the more or most convincing? This of course is the most difficult aspect of doing a term research essay.
- (3) Finally, you engage in the art of composition or exposition -- i.e. writing. You have decide upon a central theme, thesis, or hypothesis to serve as the core framework for your essay; and then you have to compose your arguments in a logicically compelling fashion to convice the reader of your case; and you must do so in good English, with correct, proper syntax, grammar, spelling, puncutation, etc. in order to convey your ideas clearly, concisely compellingly.